Espen Barth Eide was the ;Norwegian minister of foreign affairs from September 2012 toOctober 2013. From 2000 to 2001, Eide served as state secretary in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He later served as state secretary in the Ministry of Defense for five years. In 2011, Eide was appointed minister of defense in Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg’s government. He has a degree in political science from the University of Oslo. Eide is a member of the Norwegian Labour Party. Born and raised in Oslo, Eide graduated from the University of Oslo with a degree in politics in 1993. Upon graduation, he worked as a researcher in the United Nations Programme at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, a government agency and research organization dedicated to promoting a better understanding of international issues. In this role, Eide focused on global involvement in the Balkan conflicts, peacekeeping operations, and the role of the United Nations. In 1996, he became the leader of the program, and in 2002,he became the leader of its international politics department. Eide worked as a project manager and general secretary of the European Movement International in Norway prior to the Norwegian EU membership referendum in 1994. He has since served the government of Norway in the cabinet of the prime minister. He currently serves on the board of the Party of European Socialists,and has been an active member of the European Movement and the ;World Economic Forum, where he has been a managing director since leaving his position at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.